Did you know 24 craters of the Moon have names of Arabic and Islamic origin? These craters are named after famous scholars of Islamic civilisation, and were all approved by the International Astronomical Union.
Let's explore Arabic & Islamic crater-names on the Moon…
1/ Abulfeda Crater
Named after Isma’il Ibn Abu al-Fida, a renowned Syrian geographer (1273-1331 CE). This lunar impact crater is located in the central highlands of the Moon.
2/ Abulwafa Crater
Named after Abu al-Wafa al-Buzajani, a renowned Persian mathematician and astronomer (940-998 CE). Abul Wafa is an impact crater located near the lunar equator on the far side of the Moon.
3/ Al-Bakri Crater
Named after Abu ‘Ubayd Abdallah Ibn ‘Abd al-Aziz Ibn Muhammad al-Bakri, a renowned Andalusian geographer (1010-1094 CE). It is a small lunar impact crater on the northwest edge of Mare Tranquillitatis.
4/ Al-Biruni Crater
Named after Abu ar-Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni, a renowned astronomer, mathematician, and geographer; flourished in Afghanistan and India (973-1048 CE). Al-Biruni is an impact crater that lies on the far side of the Moon, just beyond the eastern limb.
5/ Al-Khwarizmi Crater
Named after Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi: Baghdadi mathematician and astronomer from Khwarazm (unknown-c. 825 CE). Al-Khwarizmi is a lunar impact crater located on the far side of the Moon.
6/ Al-Marrakushi Crater
Named after Abu ‘Ali al-Hasan Ibn ‘Ali al-Marrakushi, a renowned astronomer and mathematician from Morocco, lived who worked in Egypt (fl. c. 1281/1282 CE). Al-Marrakushi is a small, relatively isolated lunar impact crater in the eastern Mare Fecunditatis.
7/ Albategnius Crater
Named after Muhammed b. Jaber Al-Battani (Lat. Albategnius) a renowned Arab astronomer and mathematician from Harran, Mesopotamia (c. 858-929 CE). Albategnius is an ancient lunar impact crater located in the central highlands.
8/ Alfraganus Crater
Named after Abu ‘l-‘Abbas Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Kathir al-Farghani, a Baghdadi astronomer of Iranian origin (unknown-c. 840 CE). Alfraganus is a small lunar impact crater that lies in the rugged highland region to the southwest of the Mare Tranquillitatis.
9/ Alhazen Crater
Named after Abu Ali al-Hasan Ibn al Haytham (lat. Alhazen); a renowned mathematician, astronomer and physicist origin from Iraq, lived in Cairo (987-1038 CE). Alhazen is a lunar impact crater that lies near the eastern limb of the Moon's near side.
10/ Almanon Crater
Named after Abu Ja’far Abdallah al-Ma’mun ibn Harun al-Rashid an Abbasid caliph in Baghdad (reigned 813-833 CE) who supported scientific research, including astronomical observations & measures. Almanon is a lunar impact crater that lies in the rugged highlands in the south-central region of the Moon.
11/ Alpetragius Crater
Named after Abu Ishaq Nur al-Din Al-Bitruji Al-Ishbili (lat. Alpetragius) a renowned Andalusian astronomer (unknown-c. 1100 CE). It is a lunar impact crater located on the eastern edge of Mare Nubium, to the southwest of the much larger crater Alphonsus.
12/ Arzachel Crater
Named after Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Yahya al-Naqqash al-Zarqalluh or al-Zarqali (lat. Arzachel) a leading Andalusian mathematician and the foremost astronomer of his time; He flourished in Toledo, Al-Andalus (1028–1087 CE). Arzachel is a relatively young lunar impact crater located in the highlands in the south-central part of the visible Moon, close to the zero meridian (the visible center of the Moon).
13/ Avicenna Crater
Named after Abu ‘Ali al-Hussayn Ibn Sina (lat. Avicenna) a renowned philosopher, physician and scholar from Iran (980-1037 CE). Avicenna is a lunar impact crater that lies on the far side of the Moon, just beyond the western limb on the northern rim of the Lorentz basin.
14/ Azophi Crater
Named after Abderrahman al-Sufi (lat. Azophi): famous astronomer, well known for his book of the stars; of Iranian origin (903-986 CE). Azophi is a lunar impact crater that lies in the rugged south-central highlands of the Moon.
15/ Geber Crater
Named after Abu Muhammad Jabir Ibn Aflah al-Ishbili (lat. Geber): Andalusian astronomer (fl. first half of 12th century). Geber is a lunar impact crater that is located in the rugged south-central highlands of the Moon.
16/ Ibn Battuta Crater
Named after Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn ‘Abd Allah Ibn Battuta, a renowned Moroccan geographer and traveller (1304-1377 CE). Ibn Battuta is a small lunar impact crater on the Mare Fecunditatis, a lunar mare in the eastern part of the Moon's near side.
17/ Ibn Firnas Crater
Named after Abbas Ibn Firnas (latinized name Armen Firman) AlIbn Firnas, an Andalusian humanitarian, technologist, and inventor (c. 810-887 CE). Ibn Firnas is a lunar impact crater on the far side of the Moon.
18/ Ibn Yunus Crater
Named after Abu al-Hasan ben Ahmad ibn Yunus al-Sadafi, a renowned Egyptian astronomer (950-1009). Ibn Yunus is the remains of a flooded lunar impact crater. It lies on the far side of the Moon, just past the eastern limb.
19/ Ibn-Rushd Crater
Named after Abu al-Walid Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Rushd (lat. Averroës), a renowned Andalusian philosopher and physician (1126-1198). Ibn-Rushd is a lunar impact crater located to the northwest of the larger crater Cyrillus.
20/ Messala Crater
Named after Ma-sha’ Allah ibn Athari al-Basri (lat. Messala) a Persian astronomer and astrologer (c.740-d.815 CE) who lived in Baghdad. Messala is a lunar impact crater of sufficient dimension to belong to the category of impact features known as walled plains. It is located in the northeastern part of the Moon, close enough to the rim to appear significantly foreshortened.
21/ Nasireddin Crater
Named after Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Tusi, better known as Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (18.02.1201 in Tus, Khorasan-26.06.1274 CE in Kadhimain near Baghdad) a famous and prolific scientist from Iran. Nasireddin is a lunar impact crater that lies in the rugged terrain in the southern part of the Moon's near side.
22/ Omar Khayyam Crater
Named after Omar Khayyam or al-Khayyami, a Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet (c. 1048-c. 1131 CE). Omar Khayyam is a lunar impact crater that is located just beyond the northwestern limb of the Moon, on the far side from the Earth.
23/ Thebit Crater
Named after Thabit Ibn Qurrah al-Sabi’ al-Harrani Thabit Ibn Qurra (lat. Thebit), a renowned Iraqi scientist and astronomer (836-901 CE). Thebit is a lunar impact crater located on the southeast shore of Mare Nubium.
24/ Ulugh Beigh Crater
Ulugh Beg (1393-94-October 27, 1449 CE) was the Timurid ruler of Samarkand sultanate as well as an astronomer and mathematician. His real name was Mirza Mohammad Taragai bin Shahrukh. Ulugh Beigh is the remnant of a lunar impact crater that is located just to the west of the Oceanus Procellarum.
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